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Female Infertility

Infertility is a condition that affects 15-20% of couples in their reproductive age. This deficiency can have a negative impact on the development of the individual, producing frustration and weakening the personality, since most couples consider having children as a goal of life.

Causes of female infertility

Anovulatory infertility 
Anovulation is defined as the condition in which the development and the follicular rupture are altered and therefore the oocyte is not released from the follicle. Several causes have been identified, including autoimmune genetic factors, and others, such as chemotherapy. The ovarian dysfunction, secondary to gonadotropic regulation is another cause.

Hyperprolactinemia (higher-than-normal levels of the hormone prolactin in the blood) alters pulses of secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and based on circulating concentrations of prolactin, clinical manifestations such as an inadequate luteal phase, anovulation and amenorrhea may appear.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
It is observed in cases with weight disorders and excessive exercise. It can be idiopathic or caused by pituitary or hypothalamic dysfunction.

Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism
This is the usual situation in patients under 40 years old with premature ovarian insufficiency, women with resistant ovaries or with genetic disorders.

Polycystic ovaries
It is the endocrine pathology of major prevalence and the most frequent cause of anovulation.
Women with polycystic ovaries may present a wide range of symptoms and clinical signs; however, anovulation and hyperestrogenism are considered prerequisites in this pathology.

Tubal-peritoneal infertility
Tubal-peritoneal factors are responsible for 30% of the causes of infertility. The functions of the fallopian tubes are intimately linked to the integrity of the ciliated epithelium responsible for the uptake of oocytes. Fertilization takes place at the outer end of the ampullary section. The tubes also participate in the early development of the embryo and in its transport to the uterine cavity. Therefore, any anatomical or functional alteration of the tubes is associated with infertility.

The association between endometriosis and infertility was established long ago. Several situations have been suggested to explain the presence of infertility in patients with endometriosis, among which there are anatomical, anovulation and luteal phase alterations.

Uterine infertility
There is a wide spectrum of uterine abnormalities, whether congenital or acquired, associated with the presence of infertility or recurrent miscarriages. Examples include congenital alterations, intrauterine exposure to medications, submucosal fibroids, polyps and synechiae.

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