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Glaucoma

Glaucoma is the main cause of irreversible blindness in the world.
It is not unknown that glaucoma (acute attack of glaucoma) is a pathology of frequent consultation in the emergency services, because of its sudden onset and because of the acute and intense pain it produces.
The diagnosis must be immediate and accurate, as well as the proper handling, to avoid irreversible sequelae.

Risk factors
The risk factors related to this pathology are:

  • Age: At the sixth decade and with the passage of time the lens increases the anteroposterior diameter, so this reduces progressively the dimensions of the anterior chamber facilitating angular closure.
  • Female sex: because of their lower size and, consequently, smaller eyeball sizes.
  • Family history: involved brothers and fathers.
  • Asian ancestry.

Clinical presentation
The classic clinical presentation is a patient who presents suddenly and acutely, diminution of the visual acuity generally unilateral (only on one eye), with a vision of haloes of colors around the lights; halos that are characterized by being yellow and orange around the lights.
In addition, very intense pain in the affected eye with irradiation to the head region on the same side, accompanied by symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, abdominal cramps and palpitations.
Symptoms usually develop in the early morning or during shows that take place with low lighting (cinema, television or restaurants), because of the pupil dilatation generated by the low illumination, which replicates the iris on the angle blocking it.
 
Treatment
The treatment is aimed at sharply reducing intraocular pressure with different drugs.

Frequently Asked Questions

Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, typically due to increased pressure within the eye, leading to vision loss or blindness if left untreated.

Glaucoma is diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include measurement of intraocular pressure, examination of the optic nerve, visual field testing, and evaluation of the drainage angle in the eye.

Treatment for glaucoma aims to lower intraocular pressure to prevent further damage to the optic nerve. This may involve eye drops, oral medications, laser therapy, or surgical procedures such as trabeculectomy or drainage implants. Regular monitoring and adherence to treatment are essential to manage glaucoma effectively.